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Acknowledgements, Bibliography, Endnotes and Glossary

Acknowledgements and Bibliography

Prioritisation of Perspective:

  • 'Invisible Gorilla' Video:

  • Simons, D. J., & Chabris, C. F. (1999). Gorillas in our midst.

  • Simons, D. J. (2000). Attentional capture and inattentional blindness.

  • Mack, A., & Rock, I. (1998). Inattentional Blindness.

  • Rensink, R. A., O'Regan, J. K., & Clark, J. J. (1997). To see or not to see.

  • Most, S. B., et al. (2005). Attentional rubbernecking.

  • Neisser, U., & Becklen, R. (1975). Selective looking.


  • Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (1981). The empathy cycle. Davis, M. H. (1983).

  • Measuring individual differences in empathy. Singer, T., & Lamm, C. (2009). The social neuroscience of empathy.

  • Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy.

  • Eisenberg, N., & Miller, P. A. (1987). The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviours.

  • Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy and moral development.


  • Tononi, G., & Cirelli, C. (2006). Sleep function and synaptic homeostasis.

  • Siegel, J. M. (2001). The REM sleep-memory consolidation hypothesis.

  • Stickgold, R. (2005). Sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  • Maquet, P. (2001). The role of sleep in learning and memory.

  • Walker, M. P., & Stickgold, R. (2006). Sleep, memory, and plasticity.

  • Aserinsky, E., & Kleitman, N. (1953). Regularly occurring periods of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena, during sleep.

Group and Tribal Instincts:

  • Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict.

  • Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong.

  • Sherif, M. (1966). Group conflict and cooperation.

  • Van Vugt, M., & Ahuja, A. (2010). Naturally Selected: The Evolutionary Science of Leadership.

Big 5 Personality Traits:

  • John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy.

  • McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers.

  • Goldberg, L. R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality traits.

  • Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure.

  • Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Normal personality assessment.

  • Jang, K. L., Livesley, W. J., & Vernon, P. A. (1996). Heritability of the big five personality dimensions.

Historical Conditions:

  1. 1970s: Central Heating First Widely Available

    • Reference: "The History of Central Heating in Britain" by Energy Saving Trust.

  2. 1940s: Penicillin First Widely Available

    • Reference: "The Discovery and Development of Penicillin 1928-1945" by the Science Museum, London.

  3. 1919: Only 6% of UK Homes Had Electricity

  4. 1918 and 1928: Right to Vote in the UK for Men and Women, Respectively

    • Reference: "Representation of the People Act 1918" and "Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act 1928"

  5. 1900: First Antibiotics

    • Reference: "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945" by, detailing the work of Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst B. Chain and Sir Howard Florey.

  6. 1840s: Anaesthetics Began to be Used

    • Reference: "The history of anaesthesia" by the Royal College of Anaesthetists

  7. 1830s–1840s: Most People Lived Without Running Water

  8. 1810: The Hot Shower Invented

  9. Pre-1800: Very Little Effective Medicine Available

    • Reference: "Blood and Guts: A History of Surgery" by Richard Hollingham, detailing the historical use of alcohol, opium, and bloodletting.


[1] Greg LeMond, Mark Hom (2014). “The Science of Fitness: Power, Performance, and Endurance”, p.122, Academic Press

[1] Dove Canada. (n.d.). The Dove Self-Esteem Project calls for action to address youth mental health crisis caused by social media. Cision.

[1] Fardouly, J., Diedrichs, P. C., Vartanian, L. R., & Halliwell, E. (2015). Social comparisons on social media: The impact of Facebook on young women’s body image concerns and mood. Body Image, 13(1), 38–45.

[1] Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206–221.

[1] Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1121–1134.

[1] Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2008). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Ingram International Inc.

[1] Hester, N., Xie, S.Y. and Hehman, E. (2021). Little between-region and between-country variance when people form impressions of others. Psychological Science, 32(12), 1907–1917.


  1. Dunning-Kruger Effect: This is a cognitive bias where individuals with low ability in a particular task overestimate their skills. It occurs due to a lack of self-awareness and understanding of the required competence level.

  2. Invisible Gorilla: Originating from a famous psychological experiment, this term illustrates selective attention and inattentional blindness, where obvious things are missed while attention is focussed elsewhere.

  3. Neurotransmitters and Neuroreceptors: These are chemical messengers and their corresponding receptors in the brain, crucial for transmitting signals across neurones. They play a significant role in regulating mood, thought processes, and bodily functions.

  4. Creative Empathy: This form of empathy involves imagining what it would be like to experience life from another person's perspective, essentially putting oneself in their shoes.

  5. Emotional Empathy: A type of empathy where one feels the same emotions as another person, essentially sharing their emotional experience.

  6. Existential Empathy: This is the ability to understand and appreciate the beliefs and values that shape another person's worldview and perspective.

  7. SW (Slow-Wave) Sleep: A deep sleep phase critical for physical restoration, recovery, and overall health. It is characterised by slow brain waves and is vital for memory consolidation and bodily repair.

  8. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep: A sleep stage characterised by rapid eye movements, where dreaming often occurs. It is essential for emotional processing, memory consolidation, and learning.

  9. Big 5 Personality Traits or 5-Factor Model (FFM): This model identifies five broad dimensions of human personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. It is widely used in psychology to describe and measure personality.

  10. James Webb Telescope: A highly advanced space telescope designed to surpass the Hubble Telescope in infrared resolution and sensitivity. It is expanding our understanding of the universe, including the formation of stars and galaxies.

  11. Strawmanning: The act of misrepresenting someone's argument to make it easier to attack or refute. It involves exaggerating, distorting, or oversimplifying the original statement.

  12. Confirmation Bias: This is the tendency to seek out, interpret, and remember information in a way that validates one's pre-existing beliefs or hypotheses, often overlooking contradictory evidence.

  13. Halo Effect: A cognitive bias where an impression in one area significantly influences one's opinion or feelings in another area. For example, perceiving someone as generally competent because they are good in one particular area.

  14. Framing Effect: This effect refers to how people's decisions and judgements can be significantly affected by the way information is presented, rather than just by the information itself.

  15. Availability Bias: A bias where individuals overestimate the importance or likelihood of events based on the ease with which they can recall similar instances.

  16. Anchoring Bias: This is the tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information encountered (the "anchor") when making decisions.

  17. Recency Bias: A cognitive bias that places undue emphasis on the most recent information or experiences when evaluating a situation or making decisions.

  18. Group and Tribal Instincts: These are the natural human tendencies to form groups or tribes and to have a strong sense of identification and loyalty to these groups ultimately to satisfy a need to 'belong.'

  19. Neuroplasticity: The ability of the brain to change and adapt throughout life by forming new neural connections. It plays a crucial role in learning, recovery from brain injuries, and adaptation to new situations.

  20. Empathy Types: These refer to the various ways empathy can manifest, such as through creative, emotional, and existential channels, each representing different aspects of understanding and sharing feelings.

  21. Mind Health: This concept encompasses the overall well-being of the mind, including the ability to recognise one's capabilities, manage everyday stresses, work productively, and contribute to the community.

  22. Neurotransmitters: These are chemicals in the brain responsible for transmitting signals between neurones. They play a vital role in regulating mood, cognition, and physical functions.

  23. Serotonin: A neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep. Imbalances in serotonin levels are often associated with mood disorders like depression.

  24. Dopamine: A neurotransmitter associated with pleasure, motivation, and reward. It is crucial in regulating emotional responses and is involved in reward-motivated behaviour.

  25. Endorphins: These neurotransmitters act as natural painkillers and mood enhancers in the body. They are released during activities like exercise, helping to reduce pain and boost pleasure.

  26. Qualitative Data: This type of data focuses on descriptive and conceptual findings, characterising attributes, properties, and phenomena without numerical measurement. It is often collected through interviews, observations, and case studies.

  27. Existential Empathy: This involves understanding and empathising with the foundational beliefs and values that shape someone else's worldview and perspective.

  28. Cognitive Abilities: These are the mental skills and capacities related to intelligence, including attention, memory, problem-solving, and reasoning abilities.

  29. Mind Strength: The capacity of the mind to fully embrace life, withstand challenges and optimally adapt to change, by leveraging self-awareness of what the mind is doing, robust information interpretation, and a rich understanding of others and our relationship with them. The results of a strong mind include, resilience, adaptability, mental fortitude, reduced anxiety and a lower risk of manipulation by others.

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